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**Example text**

One can reduce the question to the circle problem, namely, the number of eigenvalues less than or equal to the number A is equal to the number of elements y G F* in the closed n-disk in R n , centered at the origin, with radius yfX/2-K. Then there is a classical argument of Gauss that derives the formula. Another method is to use the Poisson summation formula, (2TT)» ^ v(Tr) =E (where / denotes the Fourier transform of / ) for Schwartz functions / on R n , applied to the function f[x) = e-W'u. Then e"171 /4t and lim Yl e = °» which implies to to W2 as 11 0.

2) gives ( n - 1)676 + R i c ( 9 r , d r ) < 0 and, under the hypotheses of Bishop's theorem, we have 676 < -K. We now make a simple comparison argument: 6 > 0 on (0, c(£)) so we have b" + nb < 0 6(0) = 0, 6'(0) = 1. On the other hand, set 6 = SK so that 6" + Kb = 0 6(0) = 0, 6'(0) = 1 We now see that, so long as 6 > 0, we have 66" - 6"6 < 0 or, equivalently, (6'6 - 6'6)' < 0. In view of the initial conditions, we conclude: 6'6-6'6<0. 3), 6 < 0 also. Since 6 > 0 on (0,c(£)), we deduce that 6 > 0 there also 5 .

1, 15-53. Basic Riemannian geometry 29 [3] S. Gallot, D. Hulin, and J. Lafontaine, Riemannian geometry, SpringerVerlag, Berlin, 1987. [4] J. Lohkamp, Metrics of negative Ricci curvature, Ann. of Math. (2) 140 (1994), no. 3, 655-683. [5] M. Spivak, Calculus on manifolds. A modern approach to classical theorems of advanced calculus, W. A. , New York-Amsterdam, 1965. W. -London, 1971. 3 The Riemannian metric in spherical coordinates . . 5 3-dimensional case 56 57 59 60 61 61 5 Curvature comparison theorems 66 The Laplacian on Riemannian manifolds 31 §0.