# An Introduction to Algebraic Structures by Azriel Rosenfeld

By Azriel Rosenfeld

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And in general there may be a minimum of aggression even when aggressive feelings run high. Summary of propositions I should like to make explicit the hypotheses implied in the preceding sections. The crucial problem is to expand the analytical system of the psychological variables, frustration, aggressive feelings, aggression, and self-esteem, by including the structural variables, normative expectations of authority and the normative expression of emotions: 1. Close and/or punitive supervision are not frustrating in themselves but will become frustrating when they violate the subordinates’ normative expectations of authority.

50 THE SOCIAL UNCONSCIOUS Cohesion Cohesion in general refers to the degree to which the elements of a system are interdependent. The degree to which change in one element produces change in the rest of the system is an index of its degree of cohesion. Again systems can be placed on a continuum from ‘ideal cohesion’ to ‘ideal incohesion’. No known system is ideally cohesive but some approach this state. The term ‘social cohesion’ refers to the degree to which actions in a system are constrained by the existing patterns of affiliation and norms so that the activities of its members can continue.

Closure Closure refers to the degree to which an element in a system is influenced by any elements in the system’s environment. No known system is totally closed but some approach this state. By definition, no system can be totally open. If a social form is believed to approach this state, the concept ‘system’ cannot be applied to it. Its boundaries must be redefined to include the relevant aspects of what was previously considered to be its environment. Societies are perhaps among the most open of all known systems, but even they are fairly closed.