Algebraic Multiplicity of Eigenvalues of Linear Operators by Julián López-Gómez

By Julián López-Gómez

This ebook brings jointly all on hand effects in regards to the thought of algebraic multiplicities, from the main vintage effects, just like the Jordan Theorem, to the newest advancements, just like the strong point theorem and the development of the multiplicity for non-analytic households. half I (first 3 chapters) is a vintage path on finite-dimensional spectral thought, half II (the subsequent 8 chapters) provides the main basic effects to be had concerning the lifestyles and area of expertise of algebraic multiplicities for actual non-analytic operator matrices and households, and half III (last bankruptcy) transfers those effects from linear to nonlinear research. The textual content is as self-contained as attainable and appropriate for college kids on the complex undergraduate or starting graduate level.

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Example text

N=0 Then, we will obtain the Dunford integral formula, which is an extension of the Cauchy integral formula to the class of matrix-valued holomorphic functions. To obtain the Dunford integral formula we will have to study some fundamental properties of the resolvent operator R(z; A) := (zI − A)−1 , z ∈ C \ σ(A), of a matrix A ∈ MN (C). Finally, we will determine the exponential of A through its Jordan canonical form. 1 introduces the concept of norm equivalence, and proves that all norms in a finite-dimensional space are equivalent.

The proof of the following elementary lemma is proposed in Exercise 4. 3. Suppose α, β are two distinct complex numbers, and n ≥ 2 is an integer. Then αn − β n − nβ n−1 = (α − β) α−β n−1 kβ k−1 αn−k−1 . 3 will provide us with a proof of a special, but important, case of the chain rule. Although there are more general versions of the chain rule, the next one suffices for the purposes of this book. 4. Suppose R > 0, consider f ∈ H(DR ) and A ∈ MN (C), and set ρ := R/ A L(CN ) . Then, the matrix-valued function F : Dρ → MN (C) defined by F (z) := f (zA), z ∈ Dρ , is holomorphic in Dρ and F (z) = Af (zA), z ∈ Dρ .

Then, the space MN (K) of the square matrices of order N 2 with coefficients in K is isomorphic to KN and, hence, it can be equipped with the 2 structure of Banach space from any norm of KN . For example, for each p ∈ [1, ∞) we can consider the norm · p defined by ⎛ A p := ⎝ N ⎞1/p N p |aij | ⎠ , A ∈ MN (K), i=1 j=1 or the norm · ∞ defined by A ∞ := max {|aij |} , 1≤i,j≤N A ∈ MN (K). But none of these norms can be comfortably handled when the matrices are considered as endomorphisms of KN and, consequently, we ought to introduce a specific norm for linear operators.

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