Air Quality Guidelines: Global Update 2005 by World Health Organization

By World Health Organization

This e-book offers revised instruction values for the 4 commonest air pollution - particulate topic, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide - in accordance with a contemporary overview of the collected medical facts. the reason for collection of every one guide worth is supported through a synthesis of knowledge rising from learn at the overall healthiness results of every pollutant. for that reason, those guidance now additionally practice globally. they are often learn together with Air caliber instructions for Europe, 2d version, that is nonetheless the authority on guide values for all different air toxins.

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Typically, the formation of secondary aerosol is relatively slow, taking a day or more. Consequently, the airborne concentrations of species such as sulfate tend to be rather uniform over quite large distances. In the case of nitrates and SOA, the formation processes are more rapid, and in the case of ammonium nitrate may be reversible, and therefore higher spatial gradients are to be expected. SOURCES OF AIR POLLUTION 29 References 1. Seinfeld JH, Pandis SS. Atmospheric chemistry and physics. New York, Wiley Interscience, 1998.

In the urban area of Cairo, 120 μg/m3 (8-hour average) was exceeded for more than 10% of the time during the year, and at Ras Mohammed for more than 15% of the time (9). In Australia, 8-hour ozone levels exceeded 120 μg/m3 on some occasions in some areas and cities such as Sydney, Melbourne and Perth (43). Measurements at 28 sites in Australia showed 1-hour average maximum concentrations ranging between 120 μg/m3 and 310 μg/m3 (13). Sulfur dioxide, traditionally from the burning of fossil fuel Levels of sulfur dioxide have decreased markedly in most of Europe and North America and in many locations in Asia as well.

Nitrogen oxides are one of the main components of the mixture of pollutants classically referred to as “photochemical smog”. Rural background concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in industrialized countries have been measured at around 15–30 μg/m3. In urban areas, nitrogen dioxide concentrations exceed 40 μg/m3 as an annual concentration (WHO’s 2000 air quality guideline) in many of the larger cities on all continents. Short-term nitrogen dioxide concentrations may vary considerably within cities and from time to time during the day and night.

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