By D. S. Ballantine, Jr.,Robert M. White,S. J. Martin, et al.Elsevier|Elsevier Science||Academic PressAdult NonfictionScience, TechnologyLanguage(s): EnglishOn sale date: 13.05.2011Street date: 21.10.1996
Written by way of an interdisciplinary crew of specialists from either and academia, Acoustic Wave Sensors presents an in-depth examine the present nation of acoustic wave units and the scope in their use in chemical, biochemical, and actual measurements, in addition to in engineering functions. as a result of the inherent interdisciplinary functions of those units, this ebook can be worthwhile for the chemist and biochemist drawn to the use and improvement ofthese sensors for particular purposes; engineer fascinated with the layout and development of those units; the chemical engineer and the biotechnologist attracted to utilizing those units for technique tracking and keep an eye on; and the sensor neighborhood at large.
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Additional info for Acoustic Wave Sensors. Theory, Design, & Physico-Chemical Applications
Almost as broad as the familiar electromagnetic-wave spectrum, the spectrum of acoustic waves that have been excited or detected covers frequencies that range over roughly eighteen orders of magnitude. The four sensors on which we concentrate, indicated by bold lines, range in operation from below 1 MHz to slightly above 1000 MHz. 2 “sense” by producing a change in the characteristics of the path over which the acoustic waves travel; the nature of these changes will be discussed in detail in later chapters.
5). Crystals exhibiting this direct piezoelectric effect always exhibit the converse effect as well, whereby the crystal is strained by the application of an electric field. Of the 32 different crystallographic point groups to which crystalline materials belong, 21 are non-centrosymmetric (have no center of inversion); one of the 21, due to its high symmetry, has all zero piezoelectric stress constants 7. ), making it impossible to generalize a priori about whether a given material will be piezoelectric unless its crystallographic point group is known.
This prediction has been borne out experimentally with both bulk and surface waves for a number of materials. Since the loss increases rapidly with frequency, it is important to use high-quality materials for acoustic sensors operating at high frequency. 2 Piezoelectricity The coupling between strain and electrical polarization that occurs in many crystals provides a means for generating acoustic waves electrically. 5). Crystals exhibiting this direct piezoelectric effect always exhibit the converse effect as well, whereby the crystal is strained by the application of an electric field.