A-Z of Modern Europe Since 1789 by Martin Polley

By Martin Polley

An A-Z of contemporary Europe 1789-1999 is a finished dictionary which defines smooth Europe via its vital occasions and folks. It contains entries on:
* key humans from Napoleon Bonaparte to Hitler
* key political and armed forces events
* influential political, social, cultural and fiscal theories.
An A-Z of contemporary Europe 1789-1999 deals obtainable and concise definitions of approximately a thousand separate goods. The e-book is cross-referenced and hence offers linked hyperlinks and connections whereas the appendices include crucial additional info. The publication comprises 5 precious maps to steer the reader alongside.

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The decrees successfully suppressedthe open discussion of radicalism, progressivism and NATIONALISM in the German statesuntil the I 840s. Carnot, Lazare (1753-1823)French soldier and politician. An army officer and military engineerbefore the FRENCH REVOLUTION of 1789, Carnot enteredpolitics in 1791 when he was elected to the Legislative Assembly. In August 1793 he joined the Committeeof Public Safety, taking on the role of military advisor. He was responsible for a number of military reforms that helped France'sefforts in the FRENCH REVOLUTIONARY WARS, including conSCrIptIOn, regimental restructuring, and state control of munitions production.

He became the party's leader in 1925, and France'sfirst socialist Prime Minister in June 1936 in the POPULAR FRONT coalition. The government fell in June 1937. Blum returned to the premiershipbriefly in March 1938 at the head of the secondPopularFront government. When France fell in 1940 (see SECOND WORLD WAR), he was arrestedby the VICHY authorities. When the Germansoccupied Vichy France, Blum ~ who was Jewish ~ was taken to Germany and interned. He was released in May 1945. In 1946, he helped to negotiate a loan for France from the USA, before returning as Prime Minister of the caretaker government from December 1946 until his retirement in January 1947.

However, he also initiated a numberof moves which contributed to a worsening international situation. In August 1968, for example,he authorisedthe WARSAW PACT'S invasion of Czechoslovakia(see PRAGUE SPRING), a move justified by the 'Brezhnevdoctrine' which stressedcommunist countries' duties to act to protect COMMUNISM in other states. In 1979 Brezhnev led the USSR's military intervention in Afghanistan (see also IMPERIALISM). Overall, his term of office saw a weakeningof the Soviet economy mixed with a rise in political expectations, a mood which was exploited by subsequent reformist Soviet politicians, notably GORBACHEV.

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